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“营改增”收官或加快

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年08月25日 21:19:43
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(  导)(读)(  有)(地)(方)(财)(政)(系)(统)(人)(士)(对)(21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(表)(示)(,此)(前)(“营)(改)(增)(”试)(点)(的)(现)(代)(服)(务)(业)(等)(行)(业)(,税)(收)(增)(长)(虽)(然)(快)(,但)(在)(地)(方)(收)(入)(中)(占)(比)(较)(低)(。房)(地)(产)(、建)(筑)(、金)(融)(等)(行)(业)(收)(入)(份)(额)(较)(大)(,“营)(改)(增)(”全)(面)(推)(开)(后)(,地)(方)(财)(力)(会)(受)(到)(较)(大)(影)(响)(。  本)(报)(记)(者)(周)(潇)(枭)(北)(京)(报)(道)(  2015年)(最)(后)(一)(天)(的)(晚)(上)(,国)(务)(院)(发)(布)(通)(知)(,调)(整)(证)(券)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(中)(央)(与)(地)(方)(分)(享)(比)(例)(:将)(原)(本)(中)(央)(97%、地)(方)(3%的)(比)(例)(分)(享)(,全)(部)(调)(整)(为)(中)(央)(收)(入)(。  即)(便)(在)(股)(票)(交)(易)(创)(历)(史)(新)(高)(的)(2015年)(,这)(项)(政)(策)(调)(整)(带)(来)(的)(影)(响)(是)(,中)(央)(和)(地)(方)(财)(政)(收)(入)(增)(减)(额)(度)(约)(为)(75亿)(元)(,影)(响)(很)(小)(。  但)(印)(花)(税)(的)(调)(整)(只)(是)(个)(开)(端)(。财)(政)(工)(作)(会)(议)(指)(出)(,2016年)(要)(全)(面)(推)(开)(“营)(改)(增)(”,剩)(下)(四)(大)(行)(业)(为)(营)(业)(税)(的)(主)(体)(,占)(营)(业)(税)(比)(重)(超)(过)(67%。  有)(地)(方)(财)(政)(系)(统)(人)(士)(对)(21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(表)(示)(,四)(大)(行)(业)(纳)(入)(“营)(改)(增)(”,会)(对)(地)(方)(财)(政)(收)(入)(造)(成)(很)(大)(影)(响)(,中)(央)(与)(地)(方)(收)(入)(恐)(怕)(需)(要)(进)(一)(步)(调)(整)(。  据)(21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(了)(解)(,财)(政)(部)(目)(前)(正)(在)(研)(究)(“营)(改)(增)(”之)(后)(,中)(央)(与)(地)(方)(收)(入)(划)(分)(调)(整)(的)(问)(题)(。  业)(内)(人)(士)(表)(示)(,“营)(改)(增)(”之)(后)(,中)(央)(与)(地)(方)(收)(入)(划)(分)(方)(向)(不)(外)(乎)(两)(个)(,一)(个)(是)(提)(高)(增)(值)(税)(的)(地)(方)(分)(享)(比)(例)(,另)(一)(个)(是)(将)(其)(他)(税)(种)(划)(归)(地)(方)(。  印)(花)(税)(调)(整)(地)(方)(减)(收)(约)(75亿)(元)(  上)(述)(通)(知)(称)(,为)(妥)(善)(处)(理)(中)(央)(与)(地)(方)(的)(财)(政)(分)(配)(关)(系)(,国)(务)(院)(决)(定)(,从)(2016年)(1月)(1日)(起)(,将)(证)(券)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(由)(现)(行)(按)(中)(央)(97%、地)(方)(3%比)(例)(分)(享)(全)(部)(调)(整)(为)(中)(央)(收)(入)(。  证)(券)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(,税)(源)(集)(中)(在)(拥)(有)(证)(券)(交)(易)(所)(的)(上)(海)(和)(深)(圳)(,北)(京)(的)(全)(国)(中)(小)(企)(业)(股)(转)(系)(统)((即)(“新)(三)(板)(”)也)(有)(少)(量)(贡)(献)(。  2015年)(上)(海)(证)(券)(交)(易)(所)(股)(票)((包)(括)(A、B股)()总)(成)(交)(金)(额)(为)(125.8万)(亿)(元)(,深)(圳)(股)(票)(交)(易)(金)(额)(约)(为)(122.5万)(亿)(元)(。2015年)(两)(市)(股)(票)(交)(易)(总)(额)(约)(为)(248万)(亿)(,约)(为)(2014年)(交)(易)(额)(的)(3.3倍)(,进)(一)(步)(刷)(新)(历)(史)(记)(录)(。  当)(前)(证)(券)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(的)(政)(策)(为)(,对)(买)(卖)(、继)(承)(、赠)(与)(所)(书)(立)(的)(A股)(、B股)(股)(权)(转)(让)(书)(据)(,由)(出)(让)(方)(按)(1‰的)(税)(率)(缴)(纳)(股)(票)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(,授)(让)(方)(不)(再)(征)(收)(。  即)(税)(率)(为)(1‰,由)(出)(让)(方)(一)(方)(承)(担)(。2015年)(248万)(亿)(元)(成)(交)(额)(,贡)(献)(证)(券)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(约)(为)(2500亿)(元)(;地)(方)(分)(成)(比)(例)(为)(3%,即)(归)(属)(地)(方)(的)(收)(入)(约)(为)(75亿)(元)(。  将)(原)(本)(属)(于)(上)(海)(、深)(圳)(的)(30多)(亿)(元)(,上)(收)(到)(中)(央)(,这)(对)(于)(地)(方)(财)(力)(已)(经)(突)(破)(5000亿)(元)(的)(上)(海)(、2015年)(地)(方)(级)(财)(政)(收)(入)(达)(到)(2728亿)(元)(的)(深)(圳)(,影)(响)(不)(大)(。  在)(历)(史)(上)(来)(看)(,证)(券)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(中)(央)(分)(成)(比)(例)(在)(不)(断)(扩)(大)(。从)(1990年)(税)(种)(设)(立)(之)(初)(完)(全)(为)(地)(方)(收)(入)(,后)(调)(整)(为)(中)(央)(地)(方)(五)(五)(分)(成)(,此)(后)(中)(央)(比)(例)(逐)(渐)(提)(高)(到)(80%、88%、97%,直)(到)(目)(前)(的)(100%。  提)(高)(中)(央)(分)(享)(比)(例)(有)(其)(合)(理)(性)(,因)(为)(股)(票)(交)(易)(是)(来)(自)(全)(国)(各)(地)(的)(股)(票)(,而)(不)(单)(单)(是)(深)(圳)(、上)(海)(的)(股)(票)(。此)(外)(,证)(券)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(作)(为)(中)(央)(调)(控)(股)(市)(交)(易)(的)(手)(段)(之)(一)(,也)(有)(重)(要)(作)(用)(。  北)(京)(大)(学)(财)(税)(法)(研)(究)(中)(心)(主)(任)(刘)(剑)(文)(对)(21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(表)(示)(,十)(八)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(以)(来)(,央)(地)(关)(系)(调)(整)(的)(大)(方)(向)(既)(定)(,未)(来)(要)(建)(立)(事)(权)(和)(支)(出)(责)(任)(相)(适)(应)(的)(制)(度)(,要)(适)(度)(加)(强)(中)(央)(事)(权)(和)(支)(出)(责)(任)(。与)(事)(权)(调)(整)(方)(向)(相)(适)(应)(,中)(央)(上)(收)(部)(分)(收)(入)(。  也)(有)(业)(内)(专)(家)(指)(出)(,这)(主)(要)(跟)(当)(前)(财)(政)(收)(入)(形)(势)(有)(关)(。2015年)(以)(来)(,国)(内)(增)(值)(税)(、进)(口)(环)(节)(税)(收)(等)(拖)(累)(中)(央)(税)(收)(收)(入)(增)(长)(,中)(央)(财)(政)(收)(入)(增)(长)(乏)(力)(。证)(券)(交)(易)(活)(跃)(,使)(得)(证)(券)(交)(易)(印)(花)(税)(同)(比)(增)(长)(了)(2倍)(多)(,将)(这)(部)(分)(税)(收)(上)(收)(中)(央)(,对)(上)(海)(、深)(圳)(影)(响)(不)(大)(,又)(能)(稍)(稍)(充)(实)(中)(央)(财)(力)(。  提)(高)(增)(值)(税)(地)(方)(分)(享)(比)(例)(?  如)(果)(说)(75亿)(元)(的)(收)(入)(调)(整)(,可)(能)(主)(要)(受)(收)(入)(形)(势)(影)(响)(;2016年)(“营)(改)(增)(”的)(全)(面)(推)(开)(,带)(动)(后)(续)(央)(地)(收)(入)(划)(分)(调)(整)(,将)(更)(多)(出)(于)(体)(制)(改)(革)(的)(需)(要)(。  2015年)(年)(末)(财)(政)(工)(作)(会)(议)(明)(确)(指)(出)(,2016年)(要)(全)(面)(推)(开)(“营)(改)(增)(”,将)(剩)(下)(的)(建)(筑)(业)(、不)(动)(产)(业)(、金)(融)(业)(和)(生)(活)(服)(务)(业)(纳)(入)(营)(改)(增)(。  从)(2012年)(1月)(份)(开)(始)(“营)(改)(增)(”试)(点)(,至)(今)(过)(去)(三)(年)(时)(间)(,但)(“营)(改)(增)(”的)(主)(体)(部)(分)(改)(革)(尚)(未)(开)(始)(。2012年)(财)(政)(部)(数)(据)(显)(示)(,仅)(建)(筑)(业)(、房)(地)(产)(、金)(融)(三)(大)(行)(业)(营)(业)(税)(占)(全)(部)(营)(业)(税)(比)(重)(为)(67.5%。  最)(新)(数)(据)(显)(示)(,2015年)(前)(11个)(月)(,剩)(下)(四)(个)(行)(业)(的)(营)(业)(税)(收)(入)(实)(现)(1.75万)(亿)(,占)(地)(方)(一)(般)(公)(共)(财)(政)(收)(入)(比)(重)(为)(23%。  有)(地)(方)(财)(政)(系)(统)(人)(士)(对)(21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(表)(示)(,此)(前)(“营)(改)(增)(”试)(点)(的)(现)(代)(服)(务)(业)(等)(行)(业)(,税)(收)(增)(长)(虽)(然)(快)(,但)(在)(地)(方)(收)(入)(中)(占)(比)(较)(低)(。房)(地)(产)(、建)(筑)(、金)(融)(等)(行)(业)(收)(入)(份)(额)(较)(大)(,“营)(改)(增)(”全)(面)(推)(开)(后)(,地)(方)(财)(力)(会)(受)(到)(较)(大)(影)(响)(。  营)(业)(税)(原)(为)(地)(方)(主)(体)(税)(种)(,完)(全)(归)(地)(方)(所)(有)(。增)(值)(税)(为)(中)(央)(与)(地)(方)(共)(享)(税)(,两)(者)(分)(享)(比)(例)(为)(75%和)(25%。营)(业)(税)(改)(成)(增)(值)(税)(后)(,原)(来)(完)(全)(归)(地)(方)(的)(税)(种)(,若)(变)(成)(地)(方)(分)(享)(25%,会)(对)(地)(方)(财)(力)(造)(成)(冲)(击)(。  中)(央)(财)(政)(大)(学)(税)(务)(学)(院)(副)(院)(长)(刘)(桓)(对)(21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(表)(示)(,“营)(改)(增)(”的)(全)(面)(推)(开)(,会)(带)(来)(后)(续)(中)(央)(与)(地)(方)(财)(政)(关)(系)(系)(列)(调)(整)(。其)(中)(,核)(心)(的)(是)(事)(权)(划)(分)(,事)(权)(划)(分)(到)(位)(后)(,与)(之)(相)(匹)(配)(,在)(进)(行)(税)(种)(划)(分)(和)(转)(移)(支)(付)(安)(排)(。  刘)(桓)(表)(示)(,营)(业)(税)(全)(部)(转)(为)(增)(值)(税)(后)(,央)(地)(收)(入)(划)(分)(上)(,一)(方)(面)(需)(要)(提)(高)(地)(方)(增)(值)(税)(分)(享)(比)(例)(,另)(一)(方)(面)(还)(需)(要)(给)(地)(方)(一)(些)(其)(他)(税)(种)(收)(入)(,如)(部)(分)(消)(费)(税)(、房)(地)(产)(税)(等)(。  中)(国)(社)(科)(院)(财)(经)(战)(略)(研)(究)(院)(税)(收)(研)(究)(室)(主)(任)(张)(斌)(对)(21世)(纪)(经)(济)(报)(道)(记)(者)(表)(示)(,提)(高)(增)(值)(税)(的)(地)(方)(分)(享)(比)(例)(,无)(论)(是)(提)(高)(到)(四)(成)(或)(五)(成)(,会)(增)(强)(地)(方)(招)(商)(引)(资)(动)(力)(,加)(剧)(产)(能)(竞)(争)(,进)(一)(步)(扭)(曲)(地)(方)(政)(府)(行)(为)(。  张)(斌)(进)(一)(步)(指)(出)(,未)(来)(应)(该)(进)(一)(步)(提)(高)(中)(央)(增)(值)(税)(的)(分)(享)(比)(例)(,比)(如)(90%的)(收)(入)(全)(归)(中)(央)(;同)(时)(,要)(拿)(出)(部)(分)(归)(属)(中)(央)(的)(增)(值)(税)(返)(还)(给)(地)(方)(,比)(如)(拿)(出)(一)(半)(的)(规)(模)(,通)(过)(公)(开)(透)(明)(的)(规)(则)(,如)(与)(地)(方)(常)(住)(人)(口)(或)(消)(费)(总)(额)(指)(标)(挂)(钩)(,转)(移)(支)(付)(给)(地)(方)(。
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