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一股来自俄语文学传统的悲怆力量(组图)

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年08月23日 03:59:07
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(  当)(地)(时)(间)(2015年)(10月)(8日)(,德)(国)(柏)(林)(,书)(店)(售)(卖)(2015年)(诺)(贝)(尔)(文)(学)(奖)(得)(主)(斯)(维)(特)(拉)(娜)(·阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(的)(作)(品)(。本)(版)(图)(片)(/CFP俄)(罗)(斯)(视)(野)(下)(阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(  白)(俄)(罗)(斯)(作)(家)(斯)(维)(特)(拉)(娜)(·亚)(历)(山)(德)(罗)(夫)(娜)(·阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(并)(不)(是)(诺)(贝)(尔)(文)(学)(奖)(历)(史)(中)(唯)(一)(一)(个)(得)(奖)(的)(记)(者)(——海)(明)(威)(当)(过)(记)(者)(,马)(尔)(克)(斯)(当)(过)(记)(者)(——但)(阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(是)(唯)(一)(一)(个)(迄)(今)(为)(止)(全)(职)(且)(终)(身)(在)(记)(者)(这)(一)(岗)(位)(上)(服)(役)(的)(“老)(兵)(”。8日)(当)(晚)(,阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(获)(得)(了)(本)(年)(度)(的)(诺)(贝)(尔)(文)(学)(奖)(,有)(人)(说)(,这)(是)(非)(虚)(构)(文)(学)(获)(得)(的)(荣)(光)(。《纽)(约)(客)(》上)(的)(标)(题)(干)(脆)(是)(:“非)(虚)(构)(赢)(了)(诺)(贝)(尔)(”。  阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(入)(围)(诺)(奖)(候)(选)(名)(单)(是)(这)(几)(年)(的)(事)(,但)(实)(际)(上)(她)(的)(作)(品)(十)(几)(年)(前)(就)(被)(翻)(译)(成)(了)(中)(文)(。她)(的)(作)(品)(不)(算)(多)(,不)(算)(戏)(剧)(和)(纪)(录)(片)(脚)(本)(,纯)(粹)(的)(非)(虚)(构)(代)(表)(作)(总)(共)(是)(六)(部)(。但)(即)(便)(如)(此)(,只)(要)(稍)(加)(阅)(读)(阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(的)(文)(字)(,你)(便)(会)(被)(带)(入)(一)(股)(来)(自)(俄)(语)(文)(学)(传)(统)(的)(悲)(怆)(力)(量)(,那)(是)(来)(自)(陀)(思)(妥)(耶)(夫)(斯)(基)(、索)(尔)(仁)(尼)(琴)(的)(传)(统)(。只)(是)(阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(拓)(展)(了)(文)(学)(的)(疆)(界)(。  莎)(士)(比)(亚)(在)(《理)(查)(三)(世)(》中)(说)(:“人)(世)(间)(的)(悲)(痛)(有)(百)(种)(反)(应)(。”阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(关)(注)(的)(恰)(恰)(都)(是)(这)(些)(最)(悲)(痛)(、最)(沉)(重)(的)(事)(件)(。她)(写)(阿)(富)(汗)(战)(争)(中)(失)(去)(年)(轻)(生)(命)(的)(娃)(娃)(兵)(,预)(制)(板)(搭)(起)(来)(的)(农)(家)(茅)(舍)(里)(,母)(亲)(们)(扑)(到)(钉)(得)(严)(严)(实)(实)(的)(锌)(皮)(棺)(材)(上)(,绝)(望)(地)(哭)(天)(号)(地)(;不)(久)(,她)(们)(又)(在)(职)(工)(面)(前)(、在)(学)(校)(里)(,号)(召)(其)(他)(的)(孩)(子)(要)(“完)(成)(对)(祖)(国)(应)(尽)(的)(义)(务)(”;她)(记)(下)(切)(尔)(诺)(贝)(利)(核)(电)(站)(泄)(漏)(之)(后)(一)(个)(母)(亲)(谈)(她)(的)(孩)(子)(——“她)(出)(生)(时)(不)(是)(婴)(儿)(,而)(是)(一)(个)(小)(袋)(子)(,除)(了)(眼)(睛)(之)(外)(,没)(有)(任)(何)(开)(口)(。病)(历)(卡)(上)(写)(着)(:"女)(孩)(,多)(重)(先)(天)(异)(常)(。肛)(门)(发)(育)(不)(全)(,阴)(道)(发)(育)(不)(全)(,左)(肾)(发)(育)(不)(全)(。"简)(单)(地)(说)(,就)(是)(没)(有)(尿)(尿)(的)(地)(方)(,没)(有)(屁)(股)(,只)(有)(一)(个)(肾)(。第)(二)(天)(,她)(在)(人)(世)(的)(第)(二)(天)(,我)(看)(着)(她)(动)(手)(术)(,我)(以)(为)(她)(会)(哭)(,她)(却)(睁)(开)(眼)(睛)(微)(笑)(。天)(啊)(,她)(笑)(了)(!”  正)(如)(阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(自)(己)(所)(言)(:“我)(不)(只)(是)(记)(录)(事)(件)(的)(干)(燥)(历)(史)(,我)(记)(录)(的)(是)(人)(类)(感)(受)(的)(历)(史)(。人)(们)(在)(事)(件)(之)(中)(的)(想)(法)(、对)(事)(件)(的)(理)(解)(与)(记)(忆)(;他)(们)(相)(信)(的)(或)(怀)(疑)(的)(;他)(们)(所)(体)(会)(到)(的)(希)(望)(、错)(觉)(和)(恐)(惧)(。”当)(然)(这)(个)(代)(价)(是)(惨)(痛)(的)(,试)(想)(,当)(你)(每)(天)(沉)(浸)(在)(各)(种)(人)(讲)(述)(的)(悲)(惨)(故)(事)(中)(,目)(击)(各)(种)(残)(酷)(的)(现)(实)(所)(留)(下)(的)(痕)(迹)(,那)(会)(是)(怎)(样)(的)(心)(境)(?“我)(们)(每)(个)(人)(,大)(概)(在)(生)(理)(与)(心)(理)(方)(面)(都)(有)(自)(己)(的)(防)(痛)(储)(备)(力)(,而)(我)(的)(储)(备)(力)(已)(经)(用)(尽)(。我)(听)(见)(猫)(被)(汽)(车)(轧)(死)(时)(的)(惨)(叫)(声)(就)(要)(发)(疯)(,见)(到)(被)(踩)(死)(的)(蚯)(蚓)(就)(回)(避)(。”阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(曾)(对)(自)(己)(说)(,再)(也)(不)(愿)(意)(写)(战)(争)(了)(。完)(成)(《战)(争)(中)(没)(有)(女)(性)(》一)(书)(之)(后)(,有)(很)(长)(一)(段)(时)(间)(,她)(甚)(至)(不)(敢)(正)(视)(由)(于)(普)(通)(磕)(碰)(从)(鼻)(子)(里)(往)(外)(流)(血)(的)(孩)(子)(。但)(她)(最)(终)(还)(是)(一)(次)(又)(一)(次)(地)(写)(了)(战)(争)(,因)(为)(置)(身)(于)(真)(正)(的)(战)(场)(。她)(说)(:“我)(的)(研)(究)(对)(象)(仍)(然)(如)(故)(,是)(感)(情)(的)(历)(程)(,而)(不)(是)(战)(争)(本)(身)(的)(历)(程)(。人)(们)(想)(的)(是)(什)(么)(?希)(求)(的)(是)(什)(么)(?他)(们)(为)(何)(而)(欢)(乐)(?为)(何)(而)(惧)(怕)(?他)(们)(记)(住)(了)(什)(么)(?”  这)(是)(使)(得)(阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(的)(非)(虚)(构)(写)(作)(不)(仅)(仅)(是)(“记)(录)(”的)(核)(心)(要)(义)(,这)(也)(是)(面)(向)(未)(来)(的)(工)(作)(。多)(少)(年)(后)(,当)(人)(们)(回)(头)(审)(视)(这)(些)(世)(纪)(大)(事)(、这)(一)(场)(场)(灾)(难)(中)(的)(人)(,阿)(列)(克)(谢)(耶)(维)(奇)(的)(作)(品)(留)(下)(了)(一)(个)(时)(代)(的)(证)(据)(。  撰)(文)(/新)(京)(报)(记)(者)(李)(昶)(伟)(
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