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日本AI主播登场,人工智能或成为新失业潮的推力?

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年08月18日 18:04:34
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(继)(2017年)(首)(次)(被)(写)(入)(政)(府)(工)(作)(报)(告)(后)(,2018年)(政)(府)(工)(作)(报)(告)(再)(次)(强)(调)(要)(加)(强)(新)(一)(代)(人)(工)(智)(能)(的)(研)(发)(应)(用)(,发)(展)(智)(能)(产)(业)(,拓)(展)(智)(能)(生)(活)(。毫)(无)(疑)(问)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(一)(方)(面)(使)(得)(我)(们)(的)(生)(活)(和)(工)(作)(因)(此)(变)(得)(更)(加)(便)(利)(化)(;一)(方)(面)(新)(技)(术)(可)(以)(产)(生)(很)(多)(工)(作)(,整)(个)(社)(会)(也)(会)(因)(此)(变)(得)(更)(好)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(对)(于)(人)(类)(美)(好)(生)(活)(的)(意)(义)(是)(不)(言)(而)(喻)(的)(。
人)(工)(智)(能)(作)(为)(第)(四)(次)(工)(业)(革)(命)(的)(起)(点)(,近)(年)(来)(之)(所)(以)(被)(反)(复)(提)(及)(,正)(是)(由)(于)(算)(法)(、大)(数)(据)(等)(技)(术)(的)(突)(破)(性)(发)(展)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(获)(得)(了)(前)(所)(未)(有)(的)(发)(展)(空)(间)(,甚)(至)(成)(为)(中)(国)(乃)(至)(世)(界)(经)(济)(发)(展)(的)(新)(引)(擎)(。百)(度)(公)(司)(董)(事)(长)(兼)(首)(席)(执)(行)(官)(李)(彦)(宏)(在)(中)(国)(发)(展)(高)(层)(论)(坛)(2018年)(会)(上)(表)(示)(,未)(来)(中)(国)(经)(济)(的)(成)(长)(可)(能)(更)(多)(的)(要)(依)(赖)(人)(工)(智)(能)(的)(发)(展)(。
不)(管)(怎)(么)(说)(,这)(预)(示)(着)(人)(工)(智)(能)(的)(时)(代)(已)(经)(来)(临)(,但)(就)(像)(每)(一)(次)(技)(术)(革)(命)(都)(会)(带)(来)(生)(产)(力)(的)(大)(解)(放)(,对)(生)(产)(力)(产)(生)(冲)(击)(一)(样)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(也)(会)(带)(来)(“有)(用)(的)(人)(”和)(“无)(用)(的)(人)(”的)(矛)(盾)(。
有)(人)(担)(心)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(为)(代)(表)(的)(“机)(器)(人)(”最)(终)(与)(人)(类)(争)(夺)(就)(业)(岗)(位)(,进)(而)(未)(来)(工)(作)(难)(驾)(驭)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(或)(成)(为)(新)(失)(业)(潮)(的)(推)(力)(?这)(需)(要)(一)(分)(为)(二)(地)(来)(看)(待)(。
人)(工)(智)(能)(所)(面)(临)(的)(情)(况)(在)(18世)(纪)(中)(期)(也)(曾)(经)(出)(现)(过)(,英)(国)(开)(始)(第)(一)(次)(工)(业)(革)(命)(,随)(着)(瓦)(特)(发)(明)(的)(蒸)(汽)(机)(的)(应)(用)(,机)(器)(逐)(渐)(取)(代)(手)(工)(操)(作)(,传)(统)(的)(手)(工)(业)(已)(经)(无)(法)(满)(足)(的)(生)(产)(的)(需)(要)(,手)(工)(业)(者)(大)(量)(失)(业)(。可)(以)(预)(见)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(会)(给)(未)(来)(的)(劳)(动)(市)(场)(带)(来)(巨)(大)(的)(影)(响)(,生)(产)(力)(获)(得)(解)(放)(,生)(活)(质)(量)(得)(到)(提)(高)(,那)(些)(循)(规)(蹈)(矩)(的)(、重)(复)(性)(较)(强)(的)(工)(作)(都)(会)(慢)(慢)(被)(机)(器)(人)(所)(取)(代)(,留)(下)(的)(则)(是)(对)(技)(能)(依)(赖)(度)(较)(高)(的)(工)(作)(。
数)(据)(显)(示)(,截)(至)(2017年)(6月)(,全)(球)(人)(工)(智)(能)(企)(业)(总)(数)(达)(到)(2542家)(,其)(中)(中)(国)(企)(业)(数)(量)(仅)(次)(于)(美)(国)(,位)(居)(全)(球)(第)(二)(,这)(就)(意)(味)(着)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(可)(能)(带)(来)(的)(失)(业)(问)(题)(对)(我)(国)(来)(说)(更)(为)(严)(峻)(。
不)(过)(,我)(们)(可)(以)(看)(到)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(的)(崛)(起)(带)(来)(的)(并)(不)(是)(由)(于)(整)(体)(经)(济)(萧)(条)(或)(者)(衰)(退)(导)(致)(总)(需)(求)(不)(足)(而)(形)(成)(的)(周)(期)(性)(失)(业)(,相)(反)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(对)(于)(经)(济)(发)(展)(是)(具)(有)(推)(动)(作)(用)(的)(,甚)(至)(可)(以)(作)(为)(新)(的)(经)(济)(增)(长)(点)(,从)(整)(体)(而)(言)(,技)(术)(进)(步)(最)(终)(是)(扩)(大)(就)(业)(的)(。
人)(工)(智)(能)(对)(劳)(动)(市)(场)(产)(生)(冲)(击)(带)(来)(的)(失)(业)(是)(一)(种)(结)(构)(性)(的)(失)(业)(,所)(谓)(结)(构)(性)(失)(业)(,就)(是)(指)(劳)(动)(力)(供)(需)(不)(匹)(配)(而)(造)(成)(的)(失)(业)(,特)(点)(是)(既)(有)(失)(业)(,又)(有)(职)(位)(空)(缺)(,空)(缺)(的)(职)(位)(往)(往)(是)(因)(为)(劳)(动)(者)(没)(有)(适)(合)(工)(作)(的)(技)(能)(。
从)(历)(史)(上)(来)(看)(,技)(术)(革)(命)(在)(淘)(汰)(一)(些)(职)(业)(的)(同)(时)(,也)(会)(创)(造)(出)(新)(的)(职)(业)(,只)(是)(对)(于)(人)(工)(智)(能)(来)(说)(,这)(些)(新)(的)(职)(业)(是)(更)(有)(难)(度)(的)(职)(业)(。毫)(无)(疑)(问)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(的)(崛)(起)(会)(使)(如)(今)(的)(蓝)(领)(工)(人)(逐)(渐)(失)(去)(他)(们)(现)(有)(的)(工)(作)(,然)(而)(,从)(宏)(观)(角)(度)(来)(看)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(将)(会)(推)(动)(现)(有)(工)(作)(的)(升)(级)(,工)(人)(们)(只)(是)(失)(去)(了)(需)(要)(简)(单)(重)(复)(劳)(动)(的)(工)(作)(,更)(大)(的)(工)(作)(缺)(口)(将)(会)(出)(现)(,复)(杂)(的)(、有)(技)(术)(含)(量)(的)(工)(作)(大)(量)(出)(现)(,产)(业)(结)(构)(迎)(来)(再)(一)(次)(的)(升)(级)(,迫)(使)(人)(们)(不)(断)(学)(习)(、提)(升)(,成)(为)(更)(有)(“价)(值)(”的)(人)(。
那)(么)(,在)(即)(将)(到)(来)(的)(人)(工)(智)(能)(时)(代)(,如)(何)(实)(现)(向)(新)(工)(作)(的)(转)(换)(升)(级)(呢)(?对)(于)(这)(一)(问)(题)(,政)(府)(、企)(业)(、高)(校)(应)(该)(进)(行)(配)(合)(,对)(于)(无)(力)(从)(事)(新)(工)(作)(而)(可)(能)(失)(业)(的)(工)(人)(,政)(府)(应)(当)(和)(企)(业)(进)(行)(合)(作)(,推)(出)(扶)(持)(政)(策)(,由)(企)(业)(对)(这)(部)(分)(工)(人)(进)(行)(再)(培)(训)(,令)(他)(们)(早)(日)(掌)(握)(新)(工)(作)(所)(必)(需)(的)(技)(能)(;另)(外)(,对)(于)(高)(技)(术)(性)(的)(工)(作)(,主)(要)(应)(由)(各)(大)(高)(校)(进)(行)(人)(才)(培)(养)(,目)(标)(是)(培)(养)(高)(精)(尖)(的)(人)(才)(,然)(后)(由)(企)(业)(和)(高)(校)(对)(接)(,令)(人)(才)(在)(能)(够)(发)(挥)(自)(我)(才)(能)(的)(岗)(位)(上)(工)(作)(。
窃)(以)(为)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(的)(发)(展)(并)(非)(是)(一)(个)(简)(单)(的)(“机)(器)(人)(”争)(夺)(人)(类)(就)(业)(的)(问)(题)(,真)(正)(让)(人)(们)(面)(对)(的)(并)(不)(是)(单)(纯)(的)(失)(业)(问)(题)(,而)(是)(工)(作)(转)(换)(和)(升)(级)(的)(问)(题)(,如)(果)(不)(想)(在)(人)(工)(智)(能)(时)(代)(成)(为)(“无)(用)(的)(人)(”,最)(重)(要)(的)(是)(学)(会)(自)(我)(提)(升)(,去)(学)(习)(,去)(适)(应)(,找)(到)(自)(己)(的)(独)(特)(之)(处)(,成)(为)(“有)(用)(的)(人)(”,当)(然)(政)(府)(对)(“无)(用)(的)(人)(”有)(培)(训)(、托)(底)(的)(义)(务)(。(作)(者)(系)(中)(国)(不)(良)(资)(产)(行)(业)(联)(盟)(首)(席)(经)(济)(学)(家)()返)(回)(搜)(狐)(,查)(看)(更)(多)(
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