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中国供给侧改革为什么这么难?

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年12月09日 05:50:16
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(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(在)(中)(国)(现)(在)(的)(经)(济)(状)(态)(下)(意)(味)(着)(什)(么)(呢)(?我)(们)(举)(一)(些)(现)(成)(的)(例)(子)(:医)(疗)(制)(度)(,或)(者)(说)(是)(医)(疗)(体)(系)(、医)(院)(体)(系)(,你)(会)(发)(现)(明)(显)(地)(供)(应)(不)(足)(,而)(房)(地)(产)(、钢)(铁)(、水)(泥)(则)(严)(重)(过)(剩)(。出)(现)(了)(生)(产)(严)(重)(过)(剩)(的)(部)(门)(,同)(时)(并)(存)(的)(是)(服)(务)(生)(产)(严)(重)(不)(足)(的)(短)(缺)(部)(门)(。所)(以)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(在)(中)(国)(的)(具)(体)(应)(用)(,实)(际)(上)(是)(要)(削)(弱)(和)(压)(缩)(产)(能)(过)(剩)(的)(部)(门)(,把)(经)(济)(资)(源)(腾)(出)(来)(,提)(供)(给)(这)(些)(资)(源)(严)(重)(紧)(缺)(的)(部)(门)(,医)(疗)(就)(是)(最)(明)(显)(的)(例)(子)(。
为)(什)(么)(现)(在)(看)(病)(这)(么)(困)(难)(?你)(到)(各)(大)(医)(院)(去)(看)(病)(,排)(队)(,你)(会)(看)(到)(病)(人)(手)(托)(着)(盐)(水)(吊)(瓶)(楼)(上)(楼)(下)(满)(地)(跑)(,还)(要)(自)(己)(挂)(号)(,自)(己)(去)(找)(医)(生)(,找)(护)(士)(。这)(种)(现)(象)(代)(表)(了)(什)(么)(?代)(表)(明)(显)(的)(供)(应)(短)(缺)(呀)(!
在)(发)(达)(国)(家)(医)(院)(你)(是)(不)(可)(能)(看)(到)(这)(种)(现)(象)(的)(。病)(人)(一)(旦)(进)(入)(了)(医)(院)(,是)(整)(个)(医)(院)(体)(系)(是)(围)(绕)(病)(人)(运)(作)(的)(。你)(一)(进)(入)(医)(院)(,不)(管)(是)(一)(个)(人)(还)(是)(很)(多)(病)(人)(一)(起)(去)(,你)(会)(发)(现)(要)(么)(已)(经)(预)(约)(好)(了)(,没)(有)(预)(约)(的)(可)(以)(看)(急)(诊)(,你)(会)(看)(到)(医)(生)(和)(护)(士)(围)(着)(你)(转)(,而)(不)(是)(你)(拿)(着)(吊)(瓶)(去)(满)(世)(界)(跑)(。
这)(说)(明)(一)(个)(问)(题)(,就)(是)(他)(们)(的)(人)(均)(医)(生)(拥)(有)(量)(、人)(均)(护)(士)(量)(、人)(均)(病)(床)(数)(量)(比)(中)(国)(要)(高)(很)(多)(。那)(为)(什)(么)(中)(国)(不)(能)(够)(大)(量)(培)(养)(医)(生)(、培)(养)(护)(士)(、建)(设)(三)(甲)(医)(院)(呢)(?就)(是)(因)(为)(我)(们)(长)(期)(在)(公)(共)(医)(疗)(卫)(生)(上)(投)(入)(不)(足)(,这)(形)(成)(了)(一)(个)(非)(常)(严)(重)(的)(供)(应)(短)(缺)(。
教)(育)(资)(源)(也)(是)(同)(样)(的)(道)(理)(。你)(会)(看)(到)(全)(国)(的)(学)(生)(都)(在)(要)(争)(取)(进)(入)(好)(大)(学)(,争)(取)(进)(入)(重)(点)(学)(校)(。那)(就)(意)(味)(着)(教)(育)(资)(源)(的)(分)(配)(有)(问)(题)(,主)(要)(的)(好)(大)(学)(都)(集)(中)(在)(一)(些)(重)(点)(城)(市)(里)(,好)(中)(学)(也)(集)(中)(在)(一)(些)(省)(会)(级)(城)(市)(里)(。而)(在)(县)(级)(市)(呢)(?在)(普)(通)(城)(市)(呢)(?这)(些)(资)(源)(就)(很)(稀)(缺)(。优)(秀)(老)(师)(都)(集)(中)(在)(少)(数)(大)(城)(市)(,导)(致)(其)(他)(的)(很)(多)(地)(区)(严)(重)(缺)(少)(师)(资)(,这)(说)(明)(优)(秀)(教)(师)(的)(资)(源)(供)(应)(不)(足)(,说)(明)(校)(舍)(和)(基)(础)(教)(育)(这)(种)(需)(求)(量)(巨)(大)(的)(公)(共)(服)(务)(你)(提)(供)(不)(足)(啊)(!
这)(就)(是)(一)(个)(严)(重)(短)(板)(。而)(为)(什)(么)(提)(供)(不)(足)(呢)(?还)(是)(那)(个)(原)(因)(,因)(为)(投)(资)(的)(主)(要)(的)(部)(分)(放)(到)(了)(基)(础)(设)(施)(建)(设)(上)(,放)(到)(了)(修)(桥)(、修)(路)(、修)(高)(铁)(这)(些)(事)(情)(上)(。钱)(是)(有)(限)(的)(,经)(济)(资)(源)(是)(有)(限)(的)(,在)(那)(些)(领)(域)(投)(入)(过)(大)(,那)(么)(在)(其)(他)(领)(域)(必)(然)(投)(入)(就)(会)(小)(,这)(就)(自)(然)(会)(形)(成)(瓶)(颈)(。
还)(有)(农)(业)(,农)(田)(的)(水)(利)(设)(施)(和)(基)(本)(建)(设)(,也)(是)(长)(期)(投)(入)(不)(足)(,这)(就)(导)(致)(了)(在)(农)(业)(生)(产)(中)(后)(劲)(不)(足)(。
3.供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(的)(基)(本)(原)(理)(
这)(些)(现)(象)(都)(是)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(要)(解)(决)(的)(问)(题)(。供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(要)(着)(重)(解)(决)(的)(就)(是)(压)(缩)(经)(济)(资)(源)(占)(用)(太)(大)(的)(那)(些)(生)(产)(过)(剩)(的)(部)(门)(,把)(经)(济)(资)(源)(腾)(出)(来)(去)(补)(足)(那)(些)(有)(严)(重)(短)(缺)(的)(,去)(供)(应)(这)(些)(严)(重)(短)(缺)(的)(部)(门)(。
我)(觉)(得)(这)(些)(部)(门)(集)(中)(在)(服)(务)(领)(域)(,特)(别)(是)(教)(育)(、医)(疗)(、养)(老)(,这)(种)(供)(应)(实)(在)(是)(太)(匮)(乏)(了)(。不)(要)(说)(跟)(发)(达)(国)(家)(比)(,就)(连)(跟)(一)(般)(的)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(比)(都)(是)(有)(差)(距)(的)(。这)(是)(我)(们)(现)(在)(看)(到)(的)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(的)(逻)(辑)(上)(的)(基)(本)(原)(理)(。
当)(然)(除)(了)(这)(些)(,还)(有)(些)(供)(应)(侧)(的)(改)(革)(也)(可)(以)(放)(进)(来)(。比)(如)(说)(生)(产)(不)(了)(的)(东)(西)(,或)(者)(生)(产)(成)(本)(太)(高)(又)(有)(需)(求)(的)(。比)(如)(量)(子)(计)(算)(机)(,高)(精)(尖)(的)(大)(飞)(机)(,优)(质)(的)(特)(种)(钢)(材)(,这)(些)(东)(西)(都)(是)(你)(生)(产)(不)(了)(的)(。我)(以)(前)(在)(瑞)(典)(那)(期)(节)(目)(中)(讲)(到)(过)(,瑞)(典)(的)(特)(种)(钢)(在)(它)(整)(个)(钢)(产)(量)(中)(占)(大)(头)(,而)(中)(国)(却)(是)(粗)(钢)(占)(绝)(对)(多)(数)(,我)(们)(的)(特)(种)(钢)(还)(需)(要)(进)(口)(,那)(为)(什)(么)(还)(生)(产)(这)(么)(多)(普)(通)(钢)(呢)(?就)(应)(该)(压)(缩)(粗)(钢)(的)(生)(产)(,把)(主)(要)(的)(生)(产)(能)(力)(或)(技)(术)(改)(革)(的)(资)(源)(投)(入)(到)(生)(产)(特)(种)(钢)(、优)(质)(钢)(,往)(这)(个)(方)(向)(转)(移)(。
现)(在)(所)(短)(缺)(的)(就)(是)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(要)(解)(决)(的)(生)(产)(领)(域)(的)(问)(题)(。还)(有)(工)(业)(机)(器)(人)(、人)(工)(智)(能)(、大)(数)(据)(,这)(些)(方)(面)(都)(是)(可)(能)(需)(要)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(需)(要)(考)(虑)(到)(的)(问)(题)(,当)(然)(这)(是)(一)(个)(更)(广)(泛)(的)(范)(围)(。
供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(在)(中)(国)(你)(可)(以)(把)(它)(理)(解)(成)(几)(大)(领)(域)(:服)(务)(业)(,包)(括)(刚)(才)(谈)(到)(的)(教)(育)(、医)(疗)(、养)(老)(,还)(要)(包)(括)(金)(融)(服)(务)(,包)(括)(其)(他)(的)(电)(信)(服)(务)(,我)(们)(看)(到)(中)(央)(在)(不)(断)(地)(调)(降)(电)(信)(的)(费)(用)(,这)(也)(可)(以)(算)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(的)(一)(个)(方)(面)(,因)(为)(长)(期)(以)(来)(我)(们)(都)(其)(实)(是)(交)(了)(很)(多)(冤)(枉)(钱)(,像)(这)(些)(资)(源)(都)(应)(该)(被)(释)(放)(出)(来)(,用)(于)(增)(加)(消)(费)(或)(者)(用)(于)(其)(他)(的)(投)(资)(都)(可)(以)(。
4.供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(执)(行)(的)(矛)(盾)(
在)(生)(产)(领)(域)(,就)(是)(我)(刚)(才)(提)(到)(的)(一)(些)(你)(生)(产)(不)(了)(、只)(能)(进)(口)(的)(东)(西)(,这)(些)(都)(属)(于)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(要)(解)(决)(的)(重)(大)(问)(题)(。它)(的)(前)(提)(是)(一)(定)(要)(压)(缩)(生)(产)(严)(重)(过)(剩)(的)(部)(门)(,如)(果)(你)(不)(压)(缩)(,实)(际)(上)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(就)(不)(可)(能)(实)(现)(。但)(你)(要)(压)(缩)(这)(种)(产)(能)(过)(剩)(的)(部)(门)(,却)(会)(遭)(遇)(到)(强)(大)(的)(地)(方)(阻)(力)(。
比)(方)(说)(你)(要)(关)(掉)(河)(北)(的)(一)(家)(钢)(厂)(,可)(能)(涉)(及)(数)(千)(人)(甚)(至)(上)(万)(工)(人)(的)(失)(业)(问)(题)(。中)(央)(政)(府)(说)(你)(要)(给)(我)(停)(下)(来)(,地)(方)(政)(府)(说)(那)(这)(么)(多)(人)(吃)(饭)(的)(问)(题)(怎)(么)(解)(决)(?你)(给)(我)(多)(少)(补)(助)(?煤)(矿)(也)(是)(这)(个)(情)(况)(,其)(他)(的)(生)(产)(过)(剩)(的)(行)(业)(也)(是)(类)(似)(情)(况)(。所)(以)(你)(压)(不)(动)(,你)(要)(想)(强)(压)(就)(要)(给)(它)(巨)(额)(的)(资)(金)(补)(助)(。
而)(且)(你)(会)(发)(现)(,如)(果)(你)(把)(全)(国)(很)(多)(的)(这)(种)(过)(剩)(部)(门)(全)(部)(挤)(压)(掉)(,国)(家)(财)(政)(是)(负)(担)(不)(起)(的)(。这)(就)(面)(临)(一)(个)(巨)(大)(的)(问)(题)(,就)(是)(压)(缩)(产)(能)(的)(执)(行)(力)(度)(。可)(能)(你)(今)(天)(关)(掉)(一)(家)(,过)(几)(天)(它)(又)(悄)(悄)(地)(开)(了)(。
这)(是)(现)(在)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(中)(间)(我)(认)(为)(可)(能)(是)(最)(大)(的)(一)(个)(瓶)(颈)(,就)(是)(该)(释)(放)(出)(来)(的)(经)(济)(资)(源)(释)(放)(不)(了)(,阻)(力)(太)(大)(。因)(为)(涉)(及)(到)(中)(央)(和)(地)(方)(的)(反)(复)(博)(弈)(,地)(方)(政)(府)(关)(心)(的)(就)(是)(我)(在)(这)(个)(地)(方)(,就)(得)(让)(本)(地)(有)(足)(够)(的)(就)(业)(机)(会)(,而)(这)(些)(企)(业)(虽)(然)(亏)(本)(,虽)(然)(它)(长)(期)(生)(产)(过)(剩)(,但)(是)(有)(银)(行)(托)(底)(,而)(银)(行)(是)(国)(家)(的)(,这)(就)(跟)(我)(没)(有)(关)(系)(了)(。所)(以)(我)(宁)(愿)(保)(留)(一)(个)(不)(挣)(钱)(的)(企)(业)(,让)(亏)(本)(企)(业)(持)(续)(不)(断)(地)(运)(转)(消)(耗)(国)(家)(的)(资)(金)(,我)(也)(不)(愿)(意)(让)(这)(些)(失)(业)(工)(人)(变)(成)(本)(地)(社)(会)(安)(定)(的)(隐)(患)(和)(负)(担)(。这)(就)(是)(双)(方)(产)(生)(矛)(盾)(的)(焦)(点)(之)(所)(在)(。
所)(以)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(的)(真)(正)(难)(点)(不)(是)(它)(的)(理)(论)(问)(题)(。理)(论)(都)(对)(,关)(键)(是)(你)(能)(不)(能)(有)(效)(地)(压)(缩)(产)(能)(?能)(不)(能)(有)(效)(地)(把)(经)(济)(资)(源)(转)(移)(出)(来)(,这)(个)(是)(最)(大)(的)(问)(题)(。经)(济)(资)(源)(永)(远)(是)(有)(限)(的)(,但)(是)(大)(家)(一)(定)(要)(理)(解)(钞)(票)(不)(等)(于)(经)(济)(资)(源)(,你)(钞)(票)(可)(以)(印)(一)(万)(亿)(、十)(万)(亿)(、一)(百)(万)(亿)(、一)(千)(万)(亿)(,随)(你)(印)(。
但)(是)(这)(些)(钞)(票)(背)(后)(对)(应)(的)(经)(济)(资)(源)(是)(有)(限)(的)(。这)(些)(经)(济)(资)(源)(就)(是)(具)(体)(的)(人)(,人)(力)(资)(源)(、机)(器)(、设)(备)(和)(生)(产)(原)(材)(料)(、电)(力)(、交)(通)(运)(输)(能)(力)(、电)(信)(能)(力)(等)(等)(,这)(些)(是)(真)(正)(的)(经)(济)(资)(源)(,是)(不)(会)(随)(着)(货)(币)(扩)(张)(而)(变)(大)(的)(。这)(些)(瓶)(颈)(实)(际)(上)(决)(定)(了)(你)(最)(多)(能)(有)(多)(大)(的)(经)(济)(产)(出)(,而)(我)(们)(现)(在)(的)(问)(题)(是)(经)(济)(产)(出)(的)(分)(布)(非)(常)(地)(不)(科)(学)(,或)(者)(说)(非)(常)(地)(畸)(形)(,所)(以)(才)(需)(要)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(这)(样)(的)(思)(路)(。
在)(我)(看)(来)(,很)(多)(人)(对)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(这)(个)(概)(念)(不)(理)(解)(。觉)(得)(这)(个)(词)(儿)(很)(绕)(口)(,很)(不)(容)(易)(理)(解)(,我)(觉)(得)(简)(单)(的)(说)(法)(就)(是)(,你)(不)(能)(生)(产)(的)(东)(西)(需)(要)(你)(去)(生)(产)(,你)(能)(生)(产)(但)(过)(剩)(的)(东)(西)(需)(要)(你)(削)(减)(,这)(中)(间)(涉)(及)(到)(需)(要)(把)(经)(济)(资)(源)(转)(移)(给)(另)(外)(一)(个)(部)(分)(,通)(俗)(地)(理)(解)(这)(就)(是)(供)(给)(侧)(改)(革)(背)(后)(的)(基)(本)(逻)(辑)(。
当)(然)(难)(点)(也)(有)(,就)(是)(能)(不)(能)(有)(效)(地)(解)(决)(地)(方)(阻)(力)(的)(问)(题)(。到)(目)(前)(为)(止)(,我)(觉)(得)(这)(个)(工)(作)(客)(观)(上)(有)(一)(定)(进)(展)(,但)(是)(代)(价)(是)(很)(高)(的)(财)(政)(补)(贴)(或)(者)(很)(高)(的)(资)(金)(支)(持)(,否)(则)(推)(不)(动)(。某)(种)(意)(义)(上)(来)(说)(,这)(又)(会)(造)(成)(其)(他)(新)(的)(问)(题)(,就)(是)(地)(方)(政)(府)(在)(拿)(到)(这)(些)(补)(贴)(之)(后)(,是)(不)(是)(能)(够)(有)(效)(或)(者)(合)(理)(地)(使)(用)(这)(些)(资)(金)(呢)(?
多)(一)(次)(点)(赞)(就)(多)(一)(次)(对)(作)(者)(的)(鼓)(励)(
多)(一)(次)(分)(享)(就)(多)(一)(次)(对)(知)(识)(的)(传)(播)(返)(回)(搜)(狐)(,查)(看)(更)(多)(
责)(任)(编)(辑)(:
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