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辩护权利保障仍待完善

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月18日 07:38:32
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(淌)(滤)(咚)(戏)(ㄓ?79年)(制)(定)(,1996年)(进)(行)(了)(首)(次)(修)(正)(,时)(隔)(16年)(之)(后)(,于)(2012年)(再)(次)(大)(修)(。  新)(的)(刑)(诉)(法)(实)(施)(以)(来)(,在)(诉)(讼)(程)(序)(合)(法)(化)(方)(面)(有)(明)(显)(改)(善)(,不)(过)(,这)(次)(研)(讨)(会)(显)(示)(,刑)(讼)(案)(件)(律)(师)(辩)(护)(权)(的)(行)(使)(仍)(然)(很)(难)(。  律)(师)(会)(见)(明)(显)(改)(善)(  新)(刑)(诉)(法)(规)(定)(,律)(师)(持)(“三)(证)(”即)(可)(会)(见)(当)(事)(人)(,辩)(护)(人)(在)(案)(件)(移)(送)(审)(查)(起)(诉)(后)(即)(可)(阅)(卷)(。  尚)(权)(律)(所)(以)(500余)(名)(刑)(辩)(律)(师)(为)(样)(本)(的)(调)(研)(数)(据)(显)(示)(,律)(师)(会)(见)(和)(阅)(卷)(已)(有)(明)(显)(改)(善)(。  其)(中)(,律)(师)(提)(出)(申)(请)(后)(,看)(守)(所)(能)(立)(即)(安)(排)(会)(见)(的)(占)(比)(75.2%,九)(成)(以)(上)(看)(守)(所)(对)(会)(见)(时)(长)(不)(做)(限)(制)(,八)(成)(以)(上)(对)(会)(见)(次)(数)(不)(做)(限)(制)(。而)(侦)(查)(人)(员)(或)(看)(守)(所)(人)(员)(“陪)(同)(”或)(干)(涉)(会)(见)(的)(仅)(占)(比)(17.5%。此)(外)(,77.9%的)(辩)(护)(人)(表)(示)(在)(检)(察)(机)(关)(阅)(卷)(没)(有)(障)(碍)(。  西)(南)(政)(法)(大)(学)(教)(授)(孙)(长)(永)(认)(为)(,公)(检)(法)(机)(关)(做)(了)(努)(力)(,尤)(其)(是)(公)(安)(机)(关)(,为)(保)(障)(会)(见)(权)(做)(了)(许)(多)(改)(进)(,很)(多)(地)(方)(已)(经)(能)(做)(到)(电)(子)(卷)(宗)(,律)(师)(到)(场)(就)(能)(拷)(贝)(。  不)(过)(,人)(民)(大)(学)(法)(学)(院)(副)(教)(授)(程)(雷)(认)(为)(,一)(些)(特)(殊)(案)(件)(还)(有)(待)(改)(善)(,如)(一)(些)(特)(别)(重)(大)(贿)(赂)(犯)(罪)(,律)(师)(较)(难)(见)(到)(犯)(罪)(嫌)(疑)(人)(。  孙)(长)(永)(也)(认)(为)(,这)(方)(面)(还)(需)(要)(立)(法)(的)(进)(一)(步)(完)(善)(。  调)(查)(取)(证)(规)(定)(模)(糊)(  律)(师)(调)(查)(取)(证)(难)(是)(此)(次)(研)(讨)(会)(中)(反)(映)(较)(多)(的)(问)(题)(。  中)(国)(政)(法)(大)(学)(教)(授)(陈)(光)(中)(认)(为)(,主)(要)(原)(因)(在)(于)(,侦)(查)(阶)(段)(律)(师)(到)(底)(有)(没)(有)(取)(证)(权)(,目)(前)(法)(律)(规)(定)(模)(糊)(。  在)(律)(师)(调)(查)(取)(证)(上)(,新)(刑)(诉)(法)(延)(续)(了)(1996年)(的)(规)(定)(,分)(“自)(行)(”和)(“申)(请)(”两)(种)(。最)(高)(院)(在)(2013年)(发)(布)(的)(《关)(于)(建)(立)(健)(全)(防)(范)(刑)(事)(冤)(假)(错)(案)(工)(作)(机)(制)(的)(意)(见)(》中)(进)(一)(步)(解)(释)(,“辩)(护)(人)(申)(请)(调)(取)(可)(能)(证)(明)(被)(告)(人)(无)(罪)(、罪)(轻)(的)(证)(据)(,应)(当)(准)(许)(。”  但)(上)(述)(规)(定)(没)(有)(根)(本)(改)(善)(律)(师)(“申)(请)(”取)(证)(的)(艰)(难)(处)(境)(。一)(些)(律)(师)(认)(为)(,相)(关)(法)(规)(设)(置)(门)(槛)(过)(高)(,程)(序)(繁)(琐)(,致)(使)(其)(常)(遭)(无)(理)(由)(拒)(绝)(。  此)(外)(,《刑)(法)(》第)(306、307条)(,对)(于)(律)(师)(伪)(证)(罪)(的)(规)(定)(,也)(为)(律)(师)(取)(证)(带)(来)(很)(高)(执)(业)(风)(险)(。陈)(光)(中)(认)(为)(,正)(是)(这)(种)(风)(险)(使)(律)(师)(不)(愿)(取)(证)(。  中)(国)(政)(法)(大)(学)(教)(授)(顾)(永)(忠)(认)(为)(,侦)(查)(阶)(段)(“有)(没)(有)(”调)(查)(权)(是)(问)(题)(,但)(“需)(不)(需)(要)(”更)(需)(考)(量)(。  “侦)(查)(阶)(段)(有)(很)(大)(局)(限)(,因)(此)(调)(查)(要)(有)(针)(对)(性)(,针)(对)(案)(卷)(材)(料)(,而)(不)(是)(嫌)(疑)(人)(的)(陈)(述)(。”他)(认)(为)(,律)(师)(的)(主)(要)(调)(查)(目)(标)(应)(集)(中)(在)(刑)(诉)(法)(40条)(规)(定)(的)(3种)(情)(况)(和)(可)(能)(涉)(及)(刑)(讯)(逼)(供)(非)(法)(取)(证)(执)(法)(情)(况)(。  “如)(果)(我)(们)(不)(深)(入)(思)(考)(和)(研)(究)(这)(些)(问)(题)(,仅)(仅)(看)(律)(师)(有)(没)(有)(去)(调)(查)(,就)(有)(失)(偏)(颇)(。”顾)(永)(忠)(说)(。  证)(人)(出)(庭)(率)(低)(  证)(人)(出)(庭)(质)(证)(也)(是)(研)(讨)(会)(的)(热)(点)(。  “我)(们)(的)(证)(人)(出)(庭)(率)(太)(低)(。”陈)(光)(中)(表)(示)(,虽)(然)(证)(人)(出)(庭)(是)(个)(世)(界)(性)(的)(问)(题)(,但)(中)(国)(的)(数)(据)(比)(预)(期)(还)(要)(低)(,刑)(诉)(法)(的)(修)(改)(没)(有)(完)(全)(解)(决)(这)(个)(问)(题)(。  法)(律)(并)(非)(没)(有)(为)(证)(人)(出)(庭)(提)(供)(保)(障)(。  《刑)(事)(诉)(讼)(法)(》188条)(规)(定)(,证)(人)(没)(有)(正)(当)(理)(由)(不)(出)(庭)(作)(证)(的)(,法)(院)(可)(以)(强)(制)(其)(到)(庭)(;证)(人)(没)(有)(正)(当)(理)(由)(拒)(绝)(作)(证)(的)(,最)(高)(可)(处)(以)(10日)(以)(下)(的)(拘)(留)(。  “但)(是)(三)(年)(了)(,没)(有)(看)(到)(哪)(个)(法)(庭)(强)(制)(让)(某)(个)(证)(人)(出)(庭)(,也)(没)(有)(看)(到)(不)(出)(庭)(给)(予)(10日)(拘)(留)(的)(判)(例)(。”全)(国)(律)(协)(委)(员)(钱)(列)(阳)(说)(。  在)(廊)(坊)(中)(院)(刑)(事)(庭)(长)(徐)(兵)(看)(来)(,证)(人)(出)(庭)(难)(的)(原)(因)(有)(二)(:  “证)(人)(不)(出)(庭)(的)(法)(律)(后)(果)(不)(明)(确)(,也)(就)(是)(说)(,对)(不)(出)(庭)(证)(人)(在)(侦)(查)(阶)(段)(所)(做)(的)(书)(面)(证)(言)(如)(何)(评)(价)(,法)(律)(规)(定)(不)(明)(确)(。”徐)(兵)(表)(示)(,自)(己)(试)(图)(在)(一)(线)(推)(动)(证)(人)(出)(庭)(,最)(终)(也)(没)(能)(成)(功)(,“感)(到)(很)(难)(,缺)(乏)(法)(律)(层)(面)(的)(顶)(层)(设)(计)(。”  此)(外)(,每)(个)(诉)(讼)(环)(节)(对)(证)(人)(出)(庭)(缺)(乏)(评)(价)(机)(制)(问)(题)(,“证)(人)(出)(庭)(存)(在)(公)(诉)(量)(问)(题)(,司)(法)(人)(员)(围)(绕)(绩)(效)(评)(价)(、工)(作)(,但)(现)(在)(司)(法)(人)(员)(的)(绩)(效)(考)(核)(没)(有)(涉)(及)(这)(个)(”。徐)(兵)(说)(。  非)(法)(证)(据)(排)(除)(缺)(乏)(依)(据)(  《刑)(事)(诉)(讼)(法)(》第)(54条)(规)(定)(,采)(用)(刑)(讯)(逼)(供)(等)(非)(法)(方)(法)(收)(集)(的)(证)(据)(应)(当)(予)(以)(排)(除)(。  但)(问)(题)(在)(于)(,“刑)(讯)(逼)(供)(等)(”的)(宽)(泛)(表)(述)(,不)(能)(为)(实)(践)(中)(提)(供)(精)(准)(的)(法)(律)(依)(据)(。  徐)(兵)(对)(新)(刑)(诉)(实)(施)(以)(来)(,两)(级)(法)(院)(按)(普)(通)(程)(序)(审)(理)(的)(、判)(处)(五)(年)(以)(上)(刑)(事)(案)(件)(做)(了)(分)(析)(,发)(现)(申)(请)(非)(法)(证)(据)(排)(除)(的)(占)(6%;申)(请)(时)(能)(提)(供)(线)(索)(材)(料)(的)(占)(3.2%;合)(议)(庭)(对)(证)(据)(来)(源)(合)(法)(性)(产)(生)(合)(理)(猜)(疑)(的)(占)(1.3%;合)(议)(庭)(启)(动)(排)(除)(程)(序)(的)(占)(6%;检)(察)(机)(关)(在)(庭)(上)(就)(证)(据)(来)(源)(说)(明)(情)(况)(的)(占)(6.7%;法)(院)(排)(除)(的)(占)(6.2%;非)(法)(证)(据)(排)(除)(后)(判)(处)(无)(罪)(的)(0.1%。  “比)(例)(很)(低)(,反)(映)(出)(非)(法)(证)(据)(排)(除)(还)(有)(难)(度)(,但)(不)(一)(定)(能)(代)(表)(刑)(事)(案)(件)(非)(法)(证)(据)(越)(来)(越)(少)(。”徐)(兵)(说)(。  徐)(兵)(认)(为)(,非)(法)(证)(据)(排)(除)(难)(的)(原)(因)(是)(刑)(事)(诉)(讼)(参)(与)(人)(对)(相)(关)(知)(识)(和)(程)(序)(缺)(乏)(理)(解)(和)(把)(握)(。被)(告)(及)(辩)(护)(人)(方)(面)(,搜)(集)(线)(索)(和)(材)(料)(不)(到)(位)(。检)(察)(和)(审)(判)(人)(员)(方)(面)(,仍)(然)(过)(分)(依)(赖)(被)(告)(人)(口)(供)(;疑)(罪)(从)(无)(的)(证)(据)(裁)(判)(规)(则)(还)(不)(能)(内)(化)(于)(心)(,疑)(罪)(从)(轻)(、疑)(罪)(从)(有)(的)(立)(法)(理)(念)(在)(执)(法)(中)(还)(顽)(固)(存)(在)(。从)(实)(践)(的)(整)(体)(情)(况)(来)(看)(,公)(检)(法)(相)(互)(配)(合)(多)(,相)(互)(制)(约)(少)(,以)(审)(判)(为)(中)(心)(的)(理)(念)(还)(需)(要)(强)(化)(。  此)(外)(,新)(刑)(诉)(法)(在)(241和)(242条)(特)(别)(规)(定)(了)(申)(诉)(权)(。但)(实)(践)(中)(,申)(诉)(权)(行)(使)(障)(碍)(重)(重)(。  最)(高)(人)(民)(检)(察)(院)(刑)(事)(申)(诉)(检)(察)(厅)(副)(厅)(长)(罗)(庆)(东)(表)(示)(,“还)(要)(加)(大)(核)(查)(纠)(正)(力)(度)(。”  罗)(庆)(东)(称)(,“公)(诉)(部)(门)(这)(两)(年)(在)(申)(诉)(环)(节)(纠)(正)(冤)(假)(错)(案)(的)(力)(度)(不)(小)(,但)(我)(们)(更)(希)(望)(冤)(假)(错)(案)(能)(避)(免)(在)(侦)(查)(和)(公)(诉)(环)(节)(,让)(当)(事)(人)(少)(受)(冤)(屈)(。”  作)(者)(:王)(宇)(
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