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行政负责人应诉率仍偏低

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月18日 06:50:37
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(贵)(州)(省)(副)(省)(长)(陈)(鸣)(明)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(。资)(料)(图)(
  法)(治)(周)(末)(见)(习)(记)(者)(王)(京)(仔)(
  截)(至)(2016年)(5月)(1日)(,新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(实)(施)(已)(满)(一)(年)(,其)(实)(施)(情)(况)(备)(受)(关)(注)(。
  近)(期)(,上)(至)(最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(,下)(至)(多)(地)(基)(层)(法)(院)(,都)(对)(这)(一)(年)(来)(的)(行)(政)(审)(判)(工)(作)(进)(行)(了)(总)(结)(通)(报)(。
  那)(么)(,作)(为)(规)(范)(和)(保)(障)(“民)(告)(官)(”的)(法)(律)(,新)(行)(诉)(法)(的)(实)(施)(效)(果)(究)(竟)(如)(何)(呢)(?
  案)(件)(数)(量)(激)(增)(
  立)(案)(难)(一)(度)(是)(诉)(讼)(中)(长)(期)(存)(在)(的)(老)(大)(难)(问)(题)(,在)(行)(政)(案)(件)(中)(尤)(为)(明)(显)(。
  “民)(告)(官)(”渠)(道)(不)(通)(,使)(得)(大)(量)(本)(应)(该)(通)(过)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(解)(决)(的)(行)(政)(纠)(纷)(进)(入)(了)(信)(访)(渠)(道)(,出)(现)(了)(“信)(访)(不)(信)(法)(”的)(现)(象)(。
  全)(国)(人)(大)(常)(委)(会)(委)(员)(、财)(政)(经)(济)(委)(员)(会)(副)(主)(任)(委)(员)(辜)(胜)(阻)(曾)(透)(露)(,新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(实)(施)(以)(前)(,每)(年)(选)(择)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(程)(序)(解)(决)(行)(政)(纠)(纷)(的)(只)(有)(10万)(件)(左)(右)(,相)(比)(之)(下)(,每)(年)(因)(行)(政)(纠)(纷)(引)(发)(的)(信)(访)(案)(件)(高)(达)(400万)(至)(600万)(件)(。
  随)(着)(新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(确)(立)(立)(案)(登)(记)(制)(,降)(低)(了)(立)(案)(门)(槛)(,多)(地)(法)(院)(受)(理)(的)(“民)(告)(官)(”案)(件)(数)(量)(出)(现)(激)(增)(。
  实)(施)(一)(年)(来)(,据)(相)(关)(法)(院)(披)(露)(:截)(至)(2016年)(4月)(20日)(,北)(京)(市)(法)(院)(共)(受)(理)(各)(类)(行)(政)(案)(件)(16281件)(,同)(比)(上)(升)(99%;山)(东)(全)(省)(法)(院)(仅)(2015年)(5月)(,新)(法)(实)(施)(首)(月)(,受)(理)(一)(审)(行)(政)(案)(件)(2227件)(,同)(比)(增)(加)(达)(89.89%;2015年)(,武)(汉)(市)(各)(级)(法)(院)(受)(理)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(案)(件)(3231件)(,同)(比)(增)(长)(127%……
  中)(国)(人)(民)(大)(学)(宪)(政)(与)(行)(政)(法)(治)(研)(究)(中)(心)(副)(主)(任)(杨)(建)(顺)(教)(授)(指)(出)(,立)(案)(登)(记)(制)(的)(实)(行)(是)(行)(政)(案)(件)(数)(量)(激)(增)(的)(主)(要)(原)(因)(,受)(案)(范)(围)(一)(定)(程)(度)(的)(扩)(大)(也)(发)(挥)(了)(作)(用)(。
  此)(外)(,行)(政)(案)(件)(类)(型)(发)(生)(的)(变)(化)(和)(政)(府)(工)(作)(的)(推)(进)(,无)(疑)(为)(案)(件)(数)(量)(增)(长)(提)(供)(了)(契)(机)(。杨)(建)(顺)(告)(诉)(记)(者)(,信)(息)(公)(开)(、行)(政)(复)(议)(案)(件)(的)(增)(多)(,直)(接)(导)(致)(了)(行)(政)(案)(件)(数)(量)(的)(增)(加)(。
  据)(北)(京)(市)(高)(级)(人)(民)(法)(院)(统)(计)(,从)(去)(年)(5月)(1日)(到)(今)(年)(4月)(20日)(,北)(京)(法)(院)(审)(理)(的)(各)(类)(型)(行)(政)(案)(件)(中)(,政)(府)(信)(息)(公)(开)(案)(件)(占)(比)(最)(大)(,约)(占)(全)(部)(一)(审)(行)(政)(案)(件)(的)(20%。
  湖)(南)(省)(汝)(城)(县)(市)(民)(邓)(柏)(松)(无)(疑)(是)(新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(实)(施)(的)(受)(益)(者)(。
  《法)(治)(周)(末)(》曾)(报)(道)(,2008年)(,因)(为)(申)(请)(政)(府)(信)(息)(公)(开)(遭)(拒)(,邓)(柏)(松)(与)(黄)(由)(俭)(、宋)(庆)(昌)(等)(5人)(将)(汝)(城)(县)(人)(民)(政)(府)(起)(诉)(至)(郴)(州)(市)(中)(级)(人)(民)(法)(院)(。
  作)(为)(政)(府)(信)(息)(公)(开)(条)(例)(实)(施)(后)(,备)(受)(关)(注)(的)(全)(国)(首)(例)(市)(民)(状)(告)(政)(府)(信)(息)(不)(公)(开)(案)(,当)(时)(并)(没)(有)(被)(法)(院)(立)(案)(受)(理)(。
  8年)(后)(,邓)(柏)(松)(从)(已)(去)(世)(的)(黄)(由)(俭)(家)(中)(翻)(出)(了)(泛)(黄)(的)(诉)(讼)(材)(料)(,继)(续)(向)(法)(院)(起)(诉)(。2016年)(4月)(19日)(,郴)(州)(中)(院)(正)(式)(受)(理)(了)(此)(案)(。
  因)(申)(请)(登)(记)(结)(婚)(遭)(拒)(,湖)(南)(省)(长)(沙)(市)(市)(民)(孙)(文)(麟)(与)(其)(男)(友)(将)(长)(沙)(市)(芙)(蓉)(区)(民)(政)(局)(告)(上)(法)(庭)(,引)(发)(广)(泛)(热)(议)(的)(“同)(性)(恋)(婚)(姻)(维)(权)(第)(一)(案)(”得)(于)(立)(案)(,多)(少)(让)(孙)(文)(麟)(的)(代)(理)(律)(师)(石)(伏)(龙)(感)(到)(“意)(外)(”,他)(认)(为)(,这)(其)(中)(或)(许)(有)(立)(案)(登)(记)(制)(实)(施)(的)(原)(因)(。
  行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(应)(诉)(率)(仍)(偏)(低)(
  在)(过)(去)(的)(“民)(告)(官)(”案)(件)(中)(,“告)(官)(不)(见)(官)(”成)(了)(众)(多)(原)(告)(面)(对)(的)(无)(奈)(现)(实)(。
  新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(建)(立)(了)(行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(制)(度)(,明)(确)(规)(定)(被)(诉)(行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(应)(当)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(。不)(能)(出)(庭)(的)(,应)(当)(委)(托)(行)(政)(机)(关)(相)(应)(的)(工)(作)(人)(员)(出)(庭)(。
  2015年)(4月)(,最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(发)(布)(的)(关)(于)(适)(用)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(若)(干)(问)(题)(的)(解)(释)(中)(,对)(行)(政)(机)(关)(的)(负)(责)(人)(予)(以)(了)(界)(定)(,包)(括)(正)(职)(负)(责)(人)(,也)(包)(括)(副)(职)(负)(责)(人)(。
  自)(新)(法)(实)(施)(以)(来)(,多)(地)(行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(率)(有)(了)(提)(高)(。
  据)(统)(计)(,2015年)(,广)(西)(全)(区)(各)(级)(法)(院)(受)(理)(的)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(案)(件)(中)(,有)(704名)(行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(,应)(诉)(率)(为)(13.25%,而)(这)(一)(数)(字)(在)(2014年)(是)(4.69%。
  据)(北)(京)(市)(怀)(柔)(区)(人)(民)(法)(院)(通)(报)(,2015年)(5月)(1日)(前)(该)(院)(审)(结)(行)(政)(案)(件)(22起)(,其)(中)(仅)(有)(两)(起)(案)(件)(的)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(;5月)(1日)(后)(审)(结)(的)(62起)(案)(件)(中)(,有)(28起)(案)(件)(负)(责)(人)(实)(现)(了)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(,占)(审)(结)(案)(件)(的)(45.26%。
  与)(之)(相)(应)(的)(,官)(员)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(层)(级)(也)(在)(逐)(渐)(提)(升)(。
  自)(2015年)(至)(今)(年)(3月)(底)(,在)(广)(西)(已)(有)(25名)(副)(市)(长)((含)(常)(务)(副)(市)(长)()33次)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(;2016年)(4月)(11日)(,贵)(州)(省)(副)(省)(长)(陈)(鸣)(明)(更)(成)(为)(全)(国)(第)(一)(个)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(“民)(告)(官)(”案)(件)(的)(副)(省)(长)(。
  尽)(管)(行)(政)(机)(关)(的)(应)(诉)(率)(有)(了)(显)(著)(提)(升)(,行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(率)(仍)(普)(遍)(偏)(低)(,“一)(把)(手)(”更)(鲜)(少)(出)(现)(在)(被)(告)(席)(上)(,各)(地)(行)(政)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(情)(况)(也)(不)(平)(衡)(。
  北)(京)(高)(院)(披)(露)(,一)(年)(来)(,北)(京)(各)(级)(行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(的)(案)(件)(数)(量)(达)(到)(587件)(。其)(中)(,行)(政)(机)(关)(“一)(把)(手)(”出)(庭)(应)(诉)(的)(案)(件)(数)(量)(较)(少)(,只)(有)(60件)(,而)(行)(政)(机)(关)(副)(职)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(的)(有)(529人)(,部)(分)(区)(县)(行)(政)(首)(长)(出)(庭)(率)(不)(足)(1%。
  据)(湖)(北)(省)(武)(汉)(市)(中)(级)(人)(民)(法)(院)(披)(露)(,2015年)(起)(,武)(汉)(推)(行)(行)(政)(首)(长)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(制)(度)(,但)(实)(际)(出)(庭)(率)(仍)(只)(有)(6.04%,绝)(大)(部)(分)(案)(件)(均)(由)(机)(关)(普)(通)(工)(作)(人)(员)(或)(律)(师)(作)(为)(代)(理)(人)(应)(诉)(。
  在)(杨)(建)(顺)(看)(来)(,尽)(管)(存)(在)(部)(分)(行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(素)(质)(不)(高)(、有)(抵)(触)(情)(绪)(的)(原)(因)(,但)(也)(应)(看)(到)(其)(繁)(杂)(的)(行)(政)(职)(责)(这)(一)(客)(观)(条)(件)(的)(限)(制)(。“我)(们)(更)(应)(看)(到)(行)(政)(机)(关)(应)(诉)(率)(提)(升)(的)(积)(极)(意)(义)(。”
  杨)(建)(顺)(更)(直)(言)(,行)(政)(机)(关)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(制)(度)(是)(一)(种)(权)(宜)(之)(策)(,过)(分)(强)(调)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(反)(而)(是)(“官)(本)(位)(”意)(识)(的)(体)(现)(。无)(论)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(人)(的)(身)(份)(职)(位)(,只)(要)(代)(表)(行)(政)(机)(关)(出)(庭)(,对)(于)(法)(院)(作)(出)(的)(判)(决)(、裁)(定)(等)(,行)(政)(机)(关)(都)(必)(须)(对)(其)(责)(任)(予)(以)(落)(实)(,才)(是)(法)(治)(的)(理)(想)(状)(态)(。
  国)(家)(行)(政)(学)(院)(法)(学)(部)(教)(授)(杨)(伟)(东)(认)(为)(,这)(一)(新)(制)(度)(的)(落)(实)(,行)(政)(机)(关)(需)(要)(一)(个)(适)(应)(过)(程)(,去)(形)(成)(有)(效)(的)(内)(部)(机)(制)(来)(尽)(可)(能)(保)(障)(负)(责)(人)(出)(庭)(应)(诉)(。
  但)(他)(也)(认)(为)(,不)(必)(机)(械)(地)(要)(求)(“一)(把)(手)(”出)(庭)(应)(诉)(,“行)(政)(机)(关)(能)(积)(极)(应)(诉)(,从)(中)(吸)(取)(经)(验)(教)(训)(,不)(断)(提)(高)(依)(法)(行)(政)(积)(极)(性)(和)(成)(效)(才)(是)(关)(键)(”。
  案)(多)(人)(少)(矛)(盾)(加)(剧)(
  新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(实)(施)(以)(来)(,在)(“民)(告)(官)(”案)(件)(数)(量)(增)(加)(的)(同)(时)(,关)(于)(案)(多)(人)(少)(矛)(盾)(的)(反)(映)(也)(与)(日)(俱)(增)(。
  4月)(29日)(,北)(京)(市)(高)(级)(人)(民)(法)(院)(副)(院)(长)(王)(明)(达)(在)(纪)(念)(新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(实)(施)(一)(周)(年)(座)(谈)(会)(上)(指)(出)(,新)(法)(的)(实)(施)(加)(剧)(了)(北)(京)(法)(院)(案)(多)(人)(少)(的)(矛)(盾)(。
  自)(去)(年)(5月)(1日)(新)(法)(实)(施)(后)(到)(今)(年)(4月)(20日)(,北)(京)(共)(受)(理)(各)(类)(行)(政)(案)(件)(16281件)(,同)(比)(上)(升)(99%;与)(此)(同)(时)(,全)(市)(行)(政)(审)(判)(法)(官)(总)(人)(数)(却)(基)(本)(没)(有)(增)(加)(,上)(述)(期)(间)(全)(市)(法)(院)(共)(审)(结)(各)(类)(行)(政)(案)(件)(13310件)(,同)(比)(上)(升)(67.6%。
  辜)(胜)(阻)(也)(在)(会)(上)(表)(示)(,案)(多)(人)(少)(的)(矛)(盾)(不)(断)(突)(显)(,过)(去)(作)(为)(“短)(板)(”的)(行)(政)(审)(判)(,本)(来)(人)(员)(队)(伍)(就)(比)(较)(薄)(弱)(,面)(对)(案)(件)(大)(量)(激)(增)(,就)(更)(显)(压)(力)(巨)(大)(。
  杨)(建)(顺)(认)(为)(,法)(官)(的)(任)(务)(、压)(力)(加)(重)(是)(普)(遍)(存)(在)(的)(现)(象)(,但)(并)(没)(有)(大)(到)(无)(法)(承)(受)(的)(地)(步)(。这)(一)(矛)(盾)(的)(解)(决)(,需)(要)(对)(相)(关)(法)(官)(的)(工)(作)(进)(行)(科)(学)(分)(析)(,对)(相)(关)(案)(件)(进)(行)(客)(观)(梳)(理)(,根)(据)(客)(观)(需)(要)(配)(备)(法)(官)(及)(辅)(助)(人)(员)(。“人)(、财)(、物)(三)(方)(支)(持)(才)(能)(解)(决)(问)(题)(,而)(人)(是)(关)(键)(。”
  杨)(伟)(东)(则)(认)(为)(,目)(前)(新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(实)(施)(才)(一)(年)(多)(,能)(否)(保)(持)(行)(政)(案)(件)(的)(高)(速)(增)(长)(还)(有)(待)(观)(察)(,对)(案)(多)(人)(少)(的)(情)(形)(不)(能)(简)(单)(地)(下)(判)(断)(,要)(在)(观)(察)(的)(基)(础)(上)(分)(析)(问)(题)(的)(产)(生)(原)(因)(,再)(对)(症)(下)(药)(。
  滥)(诉)(问)(题)(有)(待)(解)(决)(
  “滥)(诉)(”、司)(法)(资)(源)(浪)(费)(,是)(伴)(随)(着)(新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(实)(施)(,逐)(渐)(凸)(显)(的)(问)(题)(。
  5月)(5日)(,在)(湖)(南)(省)(高)(级)(人)(民)(法)(院)(举)(行)(的)(新)(闻)(发)(布)(会)(上)(,其)(发)(言)(人)(直)(指)(立)(案)(登)(记)(制)(改)(革)(在)(方)(便)(群)(众)(诉)(讼)(、减)(轻)(当)(事)(人)(诉)(累)(的)(同)(时)(,也)(带)(来)(了)(少)(数)(人)(滥)(用)(诉)(权)(的)(新)(问)(题)(。滥)(用)(诉)(权)(、无)(理)(缠)(诉)(等)(案)(件)(急)(剧)(上)(升)(,虚)(假)(诉)(讼)(尚)(未)(完)(全)(杜)(绝)(,侵)(占)(了)(原)(本)(紧)(张)(的)(司)(法)(资)(源)(。
  如)(长)(沙)(市)(岳)(麓)(区)(坪)(塘)(街)(道)(拆)(迁)(户)(童)(某)(某)(因)(对)(政)(府)(给)(予)(的)(拆)(迁)(补)(偿)(方)(式)(和)(补)(偿)(数)(额)(不)(满)(,多)(次)(以)(政)(府)(信)(息)(不)(公)(开)(、不)(履)(行)(法)(定)(职)(责)(、民)(事)(侵)(权)(等)(理)(由)(向)(法)(院)(提)(起)(诉)(讼)(共)(计)(53起)(。
  据)(统)(计)(,立)(案)(登)(记)(制)(实)(施)(以)(来)(,湖)(南)(全)(省)(法)(院)(裁)(定)(不)(予)(受)(理)(、驳)(回)(起)(诉)(的)(行)(政)(案)(件)(2374件)(,同)(比)(上)(升)(了)(164%。
  中)(国)(政)(法)(大)(学)(副)(校)(长)(马)(怀)(德)(在)(纪)(念)(新)(行)(政)(诉)(讼)(法)(实)(施)(一)(周)(年)(座)(谈)(会)(上)(也)(表)(示)(,行)(政)(案)(件)(司)(法)(实)(践)(中)(,出)(现)(了)(“滥)(诉)(”、浪)(费)(司)(法)(资)(源)(等)(问)(题)(。一)(些)(当)(事)(人)(对)(不)(符)(合)(起)(诉)(条)(件)(和)(不)(属)(于)(法)(院)(管)(辖)(的)(案)(件)(也)(坚)(持)(起)(诉)(;有)(的)(利)(用)(立)(案)(登)(记)(门)(槛)(较)(低)(等)(机)(会)(,滥)(用)(诉)(权)(甚)(至)(恶)(意)(起)(诉)(。
  马)(怀)(德)(建)(议)(,应)(正)(确)(理)(解)(立)(案)(登)(记)(制)(,尽)(快)(出)(台)(新)(的)(司)(法)(解)(释)(,在)(确)(保)(当)(事)(人)(诉)(权)(的)(同)(时)(,处)(理)(好)(扩)(大)(受)(案)(范)(围)(与)(防)(止)(滥)(诉)(的)(关)(系)(。“因)(推)(行)(立)(案)(登)(记)(制)(改)(革)(,部)(分)(地)(方)(出)(现)(一)(案)(多)(诉)(、滥)(诉)(等)(现)(象)(是)(必)(然)(情)(况)(,这)(是)(阶)(段)(性)(问)(题)(。”
  在)(杨)(伟)(东)(看)(来)(,“滥)(诉)(”现)(象)(现)(实)(中)(肯)(定)(存)(在)(,但)(需)(要)(更)(谨)(慎)(的)(对)(待)(。因)(其)(可)(能)(涉)(及)(当)(事)(人)(诉)(权)(的)(限)(制)(,“一)(旦)(贴)(上)(滥)(诉)(的)(标)(签)(,不)(仅)(打)(乱)(了)(目)(前)(的)(诉)(讼)(秩)(序)(,更)(需)(要)(对)(相)(关)(人)(员)(进)(行)(制)(裁)(”。
  杨)(伟)(东)(说)(,对)(于)(“滥)(诉)(”需)(要)(明)(确)(其)(标)(准)(,何)(为)(滥)(诉)(;要)(厘)(清)(其)(原)(因)(,是)(立)(案)(登)(记)(制)(还)(是)(人)(为)(原)(因)(,在)(此)(基)(础)(上)(,再)(针)(对)(不)(同)(情)(况)(予)(以)(应)(对)(。
  杨)(建)(顺)(则)(认)(为)(,“滥)(诉)(”问)(题)(主)(要)(存)(在)(于)(信)(息)(公)(开)(案)(件)(中)(,其)(问)(题)(有)(所)(加)(剧)(,应)(当)(予)(以)(关)(注)(和)(重)(视)(,但)(并)(不)(应)(当)(看)(作)(主)(要)(矛)(盾)(,“(滥)(诉)()大)(部)(分)(情)(况)(下)(,是)(不)(懂)(诉)(、不)(善)(诉)(的)(问)(题)(”。
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